To start your JDeveloper you need to go to the install path (in the oracle documentation described as $JDEV_HOME but on my system there wasn't any variable called like this) and make there a file executable.
cd /Installation/Path/Oracle/Middleware/jdeveloper/jdev/bin/ chmod a+x ./jdev ./jdevAnd you should see the loading screen of JDeveloper. To be able to start JDeveloper a little easier you can add a symlink to your /usr/local/bin folder. Then you will be able to start JDeveloper by typing jdev into your terminal.
link /Installation/Path/Oracle/Middleware/jdeveloper/jdev/bin/jdev /usr/local/bin/jdev